1734 Prinz Maxmilian, 1753 Furstenberg, 1759 Gilsa, 1765 Knyphausen
Formed in 1684. From 1746 to 1756, the regiment was loaned to Britain and located in Scotland fighting at Culloden. During the Seven Years War, it was present at Hastenbeck, Sonderhausen, Lutterberg, Bergen, Minden and Vellinghausen.
In 1760, the unit was converted into a Fusilier regiment adopting the Prussian style fusilier helm as part of the reforms introduced by Friedrich II of Hessen-Cassel on his ascension to the Landgrafship. As part of the change to a fusilier regiment, the cuff and lapel colours changed from straw to black and the Prussian fusilier cap with a straw coloured bag was adopted. The flag shown is that after 1760 and was carried in the American War of Independence. During the SYW the unit was under the command of Lt.-Gen. Stein.
At Bergen, April 1759, the regiment was part of the right column under Lt.-Gen. Herzog Holstein. The regiment, along with the Erbprinz regiment and supported by the Finckenstein Dragoons, Holstein Dragoons, and Reusch Hussars, covered the right flank near Bad Vilbel clearing the wood of Saxons in support of the attack of the left flank on Bergen.
At Minden, August 1759, the regiment was located in the centre in the first line, along with the Brunswick Imhoff regiment. Both units were in Lt.-Gen. von Imhoff's brigade that supported the surprise advance of von Spörcken's corps. In addition, the battalion was brigaded with the Hessian Grenadiers and the Hessian regiment Prinz Wilhelm. The brigade was under the command of Major General von Einsiedl under the direction of Lieutenant General von Imhoff.
During the American War of Independence the regiment was known as von Knyphausen after its Inhaber at the time. Sent to North America in 1776 where most of the regiment was captured at Trenton in December 1776. Was one of the parent regiments of the 1902 Imperial Army 82nd I.R. or 2nd Kurhessisches.
This is one of only two fusilier regiments in the Hessian army. Given the ratio of fusiliers to regular infantry, I figured that I needed at least one in my Hessian force. This is the only Hessian fusilier unit at Bergen. As you might be able to see the uniform and flag is post 1760. The unit could easily be confused with the Prussian Füsilier-Regiment Herzog Karl v. Württemberg (No. 46). The new Hessian GMB Flags are beautiful. Unit painted in the spring of 2005.
Pengel & Hurt, German States in the Seven Years War 1740 to 1762, Imperial Press
K. Trenkle, Nix wie weg… die Hesse komme, Verlanganstalt Marburg